China also heads the Asian Socialist Bloc, now a department of the Third International.
It is goverened under the premises of Houism.
- 1 History
- 2 Politics
- 3 Military
- 4 Economics
Chinese history is an ancient and long unbroken line of consecutive states. Historically the Chinese “state” is considered to the be the oldest running model of a centralized state since the early dynasties. And throughout their history the Chinese had contributed a significant sum to human development that came to influence the greater globe along the silk road.
Though despite centuries of success the Chinese nation began to lag behind dangerously during the later days of the Ming and in the 19th century under the Qing. The successes of the past gave out as European exploration and development far exceeded the Chinese capabilities, though on size they were still a prestigious model and a jade prize for European trade, missionary activity, and politics. But by the arrival of European merchants the Chinese were beginning a lag due in part most likely to the conservative ideology of the people. Or as pointed at by the Europeans as their empires expanded and successes of liberal progress was lauded.
During the later years of the Manchurian Qing dynasty China made some steps to modernization. But the Sino-Japanese war (1894-1895) was one of the first serious injuries to be sustained as China was thrown into a violent spiral of decline and popular awakening.
China had stood as the defacto power of Asia for over hundreds of years with far-reaching political and social influence on its neighbors. Its successful political model and policies were the inspirations of pre-modern Vietnam, Japan, Korea, Siam, and beyond. But the expansion of European merchant interests came tow in the 18th century.
Portugal had managed to procure Macau from the Qing dynasty through a prolonged land-lease deal. But the Opium Wars (First: 1839–1842, Second: 1856–1860) marked the beginning of political division in China. The United Kingdom through force of arms managed to force the concession of Hong Kong from China. But in addition the wars began a process of the Chinese Economy being swept up by foreign governments who could afford to be more competitive on the account of modern technological growth.
China would also be stung again during the Boxer Rebellion during which pro-Qing revolutionaries attempted to expel foreign influence from Beijing and China. However their actions only summoned to China an alliance force composed of the major European Great Powers, the US, and Japan in the Eight Nation Alliance to quell and disperse the rebels. After the two-year conflict Beijing was promptly sacked by many members of the alliance with each member of the alliance committing some sort of atrocity of another.
Republicanism in China
Of the individuals to make the first attempts at bringing China into the modern era was Sun Yat-sen, a native of Xiangshan and who attended school and was baptized as a Christian in the 1880's at the Lolnai school, run by British Angelicans.
From the late 1880's and on Sun Yat-sen had grown agitated with and angered with Chinese Conservatism and the Qing Court. With a group of friends he formed the Four Bandits in Hong Kong in 1888 to seek solutions to China's technological and ideological lag. His thoughts were sent with a 8,000 signature petition to the Qing Viceroy in Hong Kong, Li Hongzhang. Though he was ultimately expelled from China for his views.
Sun Yat-sen would return shortly after the Boxer Rebellion and First Sino-Japanese War in an attempt to bring modern Republicanism to China through revolutionary force, founding the Kuomintang.
Though he in some form failed twice to successfully bring a Republican government as he originally viewed, his legacy persisted in his doctrine. His three-part ideology was adopted both by the Kuomintang and CPC in some part and in some way part of their core principle.
The Kuomintang grew after his passing and took considerable control of Southern China. Revolution across the nation ultimately overthrew the Qing court in 1911, but quickly replaced it with an era of bickering warlordism in the north, as issued by Longyu. The political situation drove the Republican army south.
The 20's, 30's, and Japan
In 1927 under the military leader Chiang Kai-shek the Republic of China sought to restore order to the Chinese provinces. Kai-shek mustered his army, and lead an expedition into the Chinese north to defeat the Chinese warlords and capture Beijing for the glory of Nanjing. His force swelled to 250,000 men from both the right and the left of the Republic of China.
Chiang Kai-Shek's vast army managed to defeat and the Zhili Clique. And with his victory sealed the Kuomintang army kept its march. But in the winter of 1927, the general would make the split in the Chinese Republic that would haunt them until their demise. As the snow fell, he ordered a purge of his army and the Kuomintang of all socialist and communist elements. This affront great upsetting and enraging the the leftist leadership.
Greatly offending and endangering them, the Communist and socialist parties of the KMT fled west-ward into China's interior where there was a large Communist loyalty seeded by the Russian refugees living there. In the KMT, the party lines split and even for a brief while the Republic appeared to break down, forcing Chiang Kai-Shek to withdraw his troops to deal with his opposition who had established a new capital in Wuhan as Chiang established is rule in Nanjing.
The vacuum of power he left behind allowed the remnants of the Manchurian authority and the feuding Bieyang cliques to advance on the lands he had occupied and effectively invalidating the initial Northern Campaign.
The political climate in China went is disarray as Chiang Kai-Shek consolidating his power and went on the path to declare himself the military dictator of the Republic of China. By 1930, the political state had deteriorated enough that the Japanese Empire took advantage and declared war on the fractured Chinese state.
Japan in China
Operating through Korea - which they had claimed late in the century prior – the Empire of Japan disrupted the already chaotic state of Chinese politics. Leading an offensive into Northern China they made short work of the warlords and took full occupation of Manchuria and Beijing.
The Japanese had for decades presumed an imperial, expansionist doctrine suited to the expansion of Japanese material wealth to feed their expanding, modern Empire. The Japanese Empire had in effect western support to some degree to re-balance the political situation in Asia, which provided them with the resources to make an aggressive push on China to forcefully acquire its material resources and expand their political influence. Prior, the Japanese and fractured Chinese factions had engaged in small-scale conflicts, or “incidents”. But outright total war had not occurred under their invasion in 1937 at the Invasion of Manchuria.
To maintain influence over their North-eastern possessions the Japanese made the former emperor Puyi – who had by this point had been leaving as a exile in Japan – as their vassal Emperor in Manchuria, or Manchukoko. His appointment being in part insisted on and influenced by Puyi's brother, having marital ties with the Emperor with his marriage to one of the Emperor's nieces. Through Puyi the Japanese practiced political influence and control of their new colonial possessions.
In public Puyi and Japan managed to have a cooperative existence. But in private the two factions bickered over political rights and privileges. Puyi sought himself installed again as the Emperor of Japan and continually fought with the Japanese on issues of law and even of ceremony.
Conflict with the Chinese Republic
Initially, the KMT suffered heavy defeats at the hand of Japan. The under-equipped, under-funded, and under-spirited Kuomintang army found it difficult to deal with the rising modern army of Japan and suffered consistent defeats, eventually loosing control of the Chinese coast. Though the army would muster itself later in receiving foreign aid to fight a growing war of influence in Asia. Consistently key Chinese cities such as Shanghai and Hong Kong or Macau would change hands regularly coming under successive occupation from Japan and China.
The Chinese Republic though would be hindered in their efforts despite victories in the late-thirties rooted largely in political infighting and shifting political alliances. Uncertainty and wide-scale right-wing shifting within the Republic would alienate many left-wing members, sending them west. Otherwise most had become imprisoned by Chiang Kai-shek in order to maintain his control as military dictator of the Republic.
Through the infighting in the KMT and the Japanese threat there was no shortage of internal refugees. Too poor to leave for America or Europe many peasents and civilians were stranded in China. And many sought safety for the relative peace in western China, defended by the mountains. It's in these refugees that the dormant Communist faction lay building its influence and strength. But it would not explode outward until the fifties.
Hou Sai Tang entered the political life when he managed to migrate south out of the Japanese north and pursued college at the age of thirty-six. Having traveled China as a migrating refugee seeking for simple work where it was needed he had grown empathy for the “tired and beaten” Chinese masses, and in some way he sought to defend them.
A law student at the University of Hong Kong (lost by Britain to Japan and claimed by the Republic) he found being recruited into the underground campus life and soon in socialist student groups reading Marx.
In the year 1956 the pressures of Chiang Kai-Shek were given a direct slap in the face in the liberated city of Hong Kong. Roughly ten-years recaptured the Macau and Hong Kong area switched hands again as a student-led uprising stole the vital ports from Chiang Kai-shek in a city-wide revolution ousting Republican control and raising the red flag. Led primarily by Wen Chu and Hou Sai Tang, the new Hong Kong commune – along with its partners in Macau – sought an independent state ruled by Communist law. However the response from Chiang Kai Shek was sharp and absolute: no.
A prolonged siege of the cities forced a mass evacuation and abandonment of the cities to the Republican Army. Sneaking around the Republican front line, the communes and their faithful left their homes and made the long march west to meet with communist leaders in Chongqing.
The vision of Wen Chu and Hou Sai Tang offered a resource stern enough to give the Communists a centralized morale to make a move on their enemies. Leaving for the north, Wen Chu went to conduct campaigns towards Beijing as Hou Sai Tang assisted the former Republican officer-made-general Lou Shai Dek in an offense against the weak and bickering Republican forces.
On campaign though, Wen Chu came to an end on the wintered fields of the north, forcing Hou Sai Tang to march northward on Beijing to avenge his fallen friend. Smashing much of the Republican army at Luding Bridge, Hou went north where he engaged the Imperial forces.
Suffering a number of guerrilla defeats at the hands of the Communists, as well as suffering the strain of prolonged conflict and the humiliation of loosing Unit 731 and the uncovering of its atrocities there, the Empire of Japan withdrew from China, moving its operations to Taiwan and Korea and abandoning Puyi to the Communists.
Beijing fell in 1958 and in the next year Chiang Kai Shek was killed in the field bringing to an end the military capabilities of the Republican south. By the end of 1959 the Communists had near defacto control of China; minus Tibet and Mongolia. On the dawning of 1960 a congress was called by Hou who had assumed defacto control of the Communists forces. Inviting the remnants of the Republican Chinese politic they organized the surrender of Southern China to the Communist authority and drafted the constitution of the new China on the principles written by Hou Sai Tang and his colleagues since he began studying law in Hong Kong in 1946; this communist ideology becoming known simply and popularly by the term Houism, The People's Manifest of Independence being its book.
This congress also served to organize the new Chinese government, and effectivly saw the merger of the less radical Republic elements into the CPC to create the New People's China party, or NPC; the official name of the state also being derived from the party: New People's China.
The Mongolion Annexation Campaign (1960's)
Shortly after the Liberation of the Homeland the eyes of China turned to Mongolia.
The Mongolian Annexation Campaign was the first significant propoganda program ran by the fledgling New People's China's Intelligence Agency (or the NPCIA, or simple the Intelligence Bureau, Qíngbào jú or IB). Pinning the success of their efforts and stability thus far. General Yan Sing was anxious to field the power of the word on new soil to prove it to be a viable weapon. Arguing that given the strength of the army would be a more viable and subtle solution to take Mongolia and prevent possible Russian interference. In 1963 the campaign was launched. A choice selection of agents dubbed "converters" slipped into Mongolia to seek out sympathies and nurture them to grow and expand the Mongolian Communist movement. General Yan Sing and his officers at the time agreed that considering the nature of Communism it would an easy task to recruit the generally under-developed nation.
Several years of recruiting and some guerrilla warfare with conservative tribes and the Mongolian government saw itself Communist owned. Annexation wasn't immediate as the government set about exercising its campaign promises. If anything it was more willing to be an ally or indirect territory of the Chinese in part of their aid. Two years later though and facing the threat of internal instability the Mongolian government signed a treaty with the Chinese government agreeing to secede all territories and its government power to China in exchange for stability and safety.
In general, the 70's are considered by the Chinese as being the year of awakening for the Chinese state. Following the annexation of Mongolia and the studying of the mixed insurgent and military programs that allowed for its annexation, leaders examined the possibility of deploying the same strategy to reclaim the territories lost in the decades of political instability that had haunted the Chinese state prior, such as the removal of lingering Japanese rule in East Asia in Taiwan and Korea. The focusing of Chinese industrial output into defensive measures also aided the economic repair of China so that it might begin a shift in focus to not just repairing the damages wrought, but expansion of the nation's abilities for a self-sufficient economy, which had been pursued by the new government, if aggresively.
After the annexation of Mongolia military assets turned to focus on Tibet. Ultimately overrunning the nation and bringing it back to the Chinese fold in shorter than anticipated time. Shortly after prompted by concerns of nationalist dogma spreading, they quickly mobilized for Taiwan later that same year, which was a theater in a greater mission in the passification of feared right-wing threats from the Philippines, or a renewed attention in Asia by the United States.
Military conflict aside, the expansion of Chinese military power saw with it an expansion of Chinese political influence. Culminating in the formation of the Asian Socialist Bloc which was followed by the Third International. These moves also assisting China in opening its ports and boosting its economic power through the seventies to lead to blooming potential in wide-spread economic power over its neighbors.
China also saw the rise to space with the launch of the OARP sattelite projects. A mission that continues within the state, but with an expanded public roll.
By the passing of the 80's the nation faces its first major election since the appointment of Hou Sai Tang as party head and head of state. The Chairman coming out in public to announce his retirement from the post of Grand Secretary after recovering from a stroke that had him crippled for several months.
See: 1980 Chinese elections
To complicate China's position in the world and Hou Sai Tang's official non-involvement policy the Spanish Invasion of Africa has garnered enough international attention that in the Third International enough support has been reached that the Comintern has declared war on Spain. Though this does not mean that member-states of the organization are de facto at war with Spain it requires war-time obligations of its member states to allocate military resources to Africa to assist in the African defense.
China – or New People's China – is the primary operating communist state in the Precipice world. Its politics function on a single recognized party, though members of the state would argue that there is no formal party. It's structure and interpretation on traditional Marxism may be considered reformist as it displays and acts with some degree of liberal interpretation of communist ideology, sometimes with a more conservative way (when in relation to religion, though it is an officially atheist government).
The highest executive power in the system is held by the Grand Secretary, charged with organizing and maintaining the government ministries and signing into law legislation. Equal to him is the Chairman, which sits on the Politburo as a representative of the greater New People's China party. Through the Politburo appointment to government positions are signed and made official.
China is broken into 26 provinces, which are further broken down into a collection of communes. Each province is overseen by a local congress and an elected executive officer, the governor. The provinces act with some political autonomy from the central government in Beijing by passing legislation to address local issues that have not or can not be addressed by Beijing as violation of the local rule. Though laws passed by Beijing are universal; the provinces though may act to interpret these laws to adjust certain fields, but never to a point more minimal than the bill addresses.
Examples of Chinese law involve the National Conscription Act (which determines army size, condition, and eligibility requirements), the Non-National Registration Act (where all non-native born Chinese or non-native born non-Chinese are required to hold a valid ID, least they be arrested for espionage), Rightful Media Act (determines what may or may not be aired as well as the licenses granted to artists and broadcasters, leniency is granted to local provinces as long as the material is not directly seditious, but publication for a national-level is strictly controlled).
On an industry and business level, the state controls all means of production and distribution. Corporations are banned by the state, and are instead ran through state-ran development bureaus operating under their relevant ministry.
The Chairman holds a complicated relationship with the official government. He administrates the state's singular government party, which in turn has power in the Politburo Committee. As a member of which he is party to the approval of government officials and the approval of candidates for state election.
The office of Chairman is held for life, or until voluntary retirement. The Chairman is elected from within the party itself, which in practice makes the title elected from and for members within the Politburo and National Congress or any other central government position.
To date within China, the office of Chairman and the official head of state – Grand Secretary – has been held by Hou Sai Tang, who officially assumed office and title in 1959.
The Grand Secretary is the executive head of state of the Chinese government. The title may often be referred to as the Prime Minister of the Chinese State. In office he serves as the organizer of the functions of the Ministries and the civilian head of the military. In the system of People's Servants of China he is Rank 1.
The Grand Secretary is legally appointed through public election on the expiration of the previous Grand Secretary's term, or on his retirement. On death the term is acted out by the acting president; often a Politburo member of minister. Candidates for the field are approved through an electoral commission formed by the Politburo that examines your application and merit and background.
The Politburo acts as a bridge organization between the elective offices and the legislative offices of the National Congress. As a body they are responsible for the appointment of state positions, granting defacto party membership. The Politburo is headed by the Chairman.
Membership of the Politburo elective committee is made up of ministry members and of congressional delegates. The current standing Politburo ranks out at thirty members ranking 5-8 on the People's Servants of China rankings.
National Chinese Congress
Main article: National Chinese Congress
The legislative body of the Chinese government is the National Congress, elected from 3,018 individual voting districts across the nation, making the Congress 3,018 members strong elected to terms of five years. A third of the Congress is elected/re-elected in succession throughout its current generation. On the third reelection bit the generation of the Congress held is adjusted by one. As a government body the Congress is on its 6th Congress.
The congress sets terms by which the Ministries are allowed to function and to draft and approve legislation from elsewhere in the state. The Congress also acts as a consultative body for the central state in Beijing, acting in the interests of its constituencies to advise the elective body on the direction to go in regards to localized operations, or the military. By the Constitution of the Zero'th Congress all laws must pass through the Congress for approval.
The National Congress also serves as one of the highest functioning bodies of government, though its members are individually ranked 9-10 in the People's Servants of China.
The courts are the little touched area of government. They're the smallest of the seats of government in terms of power, but the largest in terms of members. The National Court is spread amongst the national communes and administers verdicts on crimes, appeals, and legal examination of and approval of law to avoid conflict with current law.
The Central Offices for the National Judges is located in Beijing. Though the entire system spans the numerous provinces with oversight of the local municipal and communal courts.
The Chinese military at roughly 5 million active full-duty soldiers is one of the largest standing armies. As a whole they have the capabilities to mobilize over 4.5 million individuals.
Commanded by the Grand Secretary the military consists of five full-service branches. Though under the same bureaucratic umbrella has the irregular police force and the Intelligence wing of the Chinese government: the Intelligence Bureau or Qíngbào jú. The government has not released official information on the total expenditure put into their army.
Despite its size the technological prowess of the army is scattered at best. The intelligence wing has developed the means to produce the chemical weapon VX after state studies of the Seattle Bomb Site were permitted by the US government during their brief period of diplomatic relations with China; however the IB has been capped in production with much of its VX production capability aimed at being test samples for protective measures. Additionally the development of ECGs has benefited the guidance mechanisms for tanks and China has independently developed jet-powered flight.
Despite these changes the army utilizes a sort of organization and weapons use relative to the decades after the Great War and many of the weapons used are twenty years old. The size of the active military certainly factors into the cost of arming and updating such a large force. Though modernization in certain sectors is ongoing to integrate recent developments into position.
For many of the years after the Revolution the army has been structured for action for throughout the Asian sphere largely. Pre-preemptive measures and equipment has been organized in expectation of the possibility of renewed Japanese aggression or European counter-aggression for the liberation of their Asian colonies and spheres of influence. Though counter-aggression has yet to occur, and with wars in Russia there's a marked possibility for the military to undergo a offensive-minded shift.
For a breakdown of information: Chinese Armed Forces
New People's China's Liberation Army
The New People's China's Liberation Army or the NPCLA is the oldest and largest branch of the Chinese military, as well as the preemptive and foremost unit in the military structure. The commander - Lou Shai Dek - assumes by his position the foremost rank over the rest of the army.
The NPCLA traces its tradition back as far as the 1920's during the initial political schism within the Kuomintang army when Chiang Hai Chek cracked down on leftist, liberal, and socialist elements within the Chinese reformist state.
Main: New People's China's Liberation Navy
The naval branch of the Chinese military. It's history is rather scattered with a number of instances in which it may cite its formation; the Evacuation of Hong Kong, Liberation of Dalain, or a number of minor instances through the early period of the Chinese Civil War in the 1920's. For whichever case though, the Navy had to be developed on its own from near scrap, the Chinese prior to the Civil War having very limited naval capabilities and less so after the Japanese had destroyed its navy in the Second Sino-Japanese War. There was a boost in the navy given the capture of a wide-range of Japanese naval vessels during the Civil War or the abandonment of Imperial Assets during the Japanese retreat.
Since the Navy's official formation in the 1960's the Chinese rushed to build a naval force to compete with the Japanese as a program in the revitalization of the nation's industrial sector. Built as a front-line against the Japanese the Navy boasts a core of battleships built to match the Japanese Yamato-class battleship 1:1, though there hasn't been a theater where this has been tested. As well the navy built a couple of small-scale aircraft carriers and a rudimentary submarine unit.
Since the Finnish Civil War a contingent of Chinese naval vessels has been in the waters of the White Sea in the northern port of the Western Communes.
The Navy is commanded by Han Shen.
New People's China's Liberation Air Force
Main: New People's China's Liberation Air Force
The national air force. The NPCLAF has been the sector with the most pushed growth. Informally founded in the forties from a unit of mismatched captured fighters the NPCLAF was skeletal unite at best until the end of the Civil War and the formation of the current Chinese state.
Shared with the Navy, the air-force has a semi-independent unit of naval units for aboard the aircraft carriers and a more niche unit of small-craft pilots for the Bohai class submarine.
The NPCLAF has been in some ways a factor in Chinese technological growth in the military. With the Intelligence Bureau they were responsible for the reverse-engineering of American-built jet-powered aircraft that had crashed during the brief American interference in the Chinese Invasion of Philippines. In edition the air-force was the primary party pursuing space exploration until the program was made independent and public in 1976.
The NPCLAF maintains a wing of first generation high altitude bombers and several units of jet-propelled aircraft. Though full-scale phasing of either has yet to take place.
The air-force is commanded by Han Jang
Additional units of the army generally follow roles of support roles to the major units and don't have a well defined doctrine of independence, extending largely to training. Units belonging to these cores are more often attached to larger armies. These forces include: The New People's China's Liberation Armor and Artillery (NPCLAA) and the Engineer Liberation Army (ELA).
National Police and Security
The national police command is an irregular and unofficial branch of the Chinese army and includes the small commune-level police and militia units of China. In troop counts these individuals are left out due to their lack of presence in any active field of war and more their law-enforcement role in China. Their powers are restricted primarily to their local jurisdictions and the local and regional laws that apply. Though on a national scale in the sense of the People's Border Protection and the shared People's Coastal Security Corps they act on a more national scale, but more limited to addressing more civilian threats than political.
Main: Qíngbào jú
Often referred to as the IB or the Qíngbào jú the Intelligence Bureau serves as a foreign and national intelligence service tasked more often in the collection of espionage data on foreign players, internal criminals and enemies of the state, and the training of and recruitment of foreign insurgency cells. Often their agents are deployed as assassins to directly remove known threats to the state and its allies without large-scale military deployment that might arose suspicion.
The IB is often used as surveillance not at home but abroad to prepare scouting information for mobilized armies and to serve as a destabilizing factor in the region to distract the offending state or make their job harder to resist the regular Chinese Army.
Agents are often recruited from veteran ranks in the regular army and assume the role of an IB agent after intelligence training. Agents refer to the Qíngbào jú simply as "The Bureau".
The economy of the Chinese state is the first large-scale implementation of state-centralized economic policies, whereby the national goods and services are all organized and developed by the state. And at its foundationg its first major hurdle was crawling out of post-war depression and major reconstruction. The years after the Revolution was wrought with large-scale destruction on its people and its infrastructure with problems that extended beyond a mere economic shift. To that purpose the centralized planning was split between the two major ministries of the the NPC government: the Ministry of Agriculture (and later of People's Interests) and the Ministry of Industry and Infrastructure. This period of intense-level centralization was known as the Recovery Era Policy.
Following there-after there was some small-scale reform to the post-revolution policy enacted by Hou Sai Tang as the national economy improved allowing for independent autonomy in smaller family-owned private buisiness. However for the large part the major industry and agriculture sector of the economy was strictly managed by the two Ministries.
In the 1970's the Chinese economy made small expansion at the formation of the Asian Socialist Bloc iniating trade with foreign states permitted access to China. Namely those states or political factions from Indochina and Russia. The scope expanded to the Philippines and Korea later that year, and mid-way through the seventies briefly expanded to the United States and Mexico, however the political alienation of and subsequent cutting of ties with the US severed US-Sino trade and foreign trade in North America re-shifted to Mexico. Still, at this time trade between ASB states was often limited and carefully controlled by the subsequent ministries, the real focus of economic policy being on self-sufficient production and internal expansion than having to rely on foreign means to expand the Chinese economic weight. Economic observers might observe that during this time the Chinese economy was relatively stagnant in growth as the prolonged and distant effects of the Revolution were stabilized.
By the 1980's and the full integration of the Third International and its trade policies much of the central planning policied regarding trade were loosened to compliment the Comintern policy. Though the changes were ad hoc between the ministries at best or the provincial outlets of the ministries who found work arounds, such cases extending to utilizing cheap Ethiopian labor to produce some more labor intensive and mundane industrial materials. Otherwise trade between the Comintern is conducted on a basis of equal weight.
China is the largest producer and consumer of agricultural produce. And it's one of the largest economic sources for the Chinese state with over 150 million individuals working farms producing food products such as wheat, barley, pork, chicken, tea, soybeans, tobacco, millet, rice, and cattle. With major production of non-food substances such as cotton or various natural oils. Coastal production is known to churn out large quantities of fish and shell fish with economic production of such centered on major coastal cities such as Hong Kong, Shanghai, or Tianjin. The agricultural economy also utilizes nearly as much of the arable lands as possible.
Rice is China's most dominant crop and is grown predominately in the southern provinces. Most often local fields are capable of producing two yields a year. Where as in central and northern China wheat and millet is more prominent. Much of western China is largely useful for only animal husbandry and is where much of the nation's cattle and goat herds are, as tended to the local Uyghurs. The central interior the farming framework is much more patchwork with various sorghum and flower seeds, tobacco, and oils (sunflower oil) is grown.
As a whole Chinese agriculture is collectively practiced based on Agricultural communes and local partnerships. The central government pays these groups collectively as a whole, as opposed to individually. As well as supplying them collectively with the resources necessary.
As an effect of the war there was large-scale devastation of the Chinese agricultural output through wide displacement of the agrarian community from the Central Chinese Plain and other regions geographically friendly to agriculture or the targeted efforts of total war by the retreating Japanese army or Republican saboteurs. By conflict's end nearly 45% of the Chinese farmland had been destroyed or abandoned leading to immediate food crises throughout the nation. As an interest in national safety and health the revitalization of Chinese agriculture was a top and continuing priority for the NPC government. The first minister of Agriculture, Mao Tse Tung was charged with attempting to reorganize Chinese agriculture and to repair it. Under Mao the Agricultural ministry focused on strict centralization policies and utilized its legal weight to enforce its policies. Through the most of the sixties it was often difficult to keep up, resulting in mass emigration from food shortage, or deaths from malnutrition.
By the seventies the Chinese agricultural sector had largely stabilized and could keep pace with public demand through rationing. Ministry control was shifted after corruption charges against Mao came to light forcing a large-scale purge of the Agricultural ministry. The second minister, the forgiven Emperor Puyi was restructured and looked more out to industrializing the Chinese agricultural field to maximize output on fewer working hands. Production of grain crops such as rice and barley saw a rise in production with a careful partnership between the Agricultural ministry and industrial ministry saw the production of motorized assets for Chinese farming communes and partnerships.
Zhang Auyi replaced Puyi after he passed away in office. Auyi readopted the reconstruction policies pursued by Mao to reinvigorate the still untouched fields, as well as promoting the pursuit of scientific study in new agricultural methods to both guard the health of existing crops and to cheaply restore soil quality, namely through the use of mycelium beds; a prospect which showed promise in the break down of industrial contamination from the restored industrial sector and to alleviate the toxins left behind as an effect of war.
Chinese Industry is overseen by the Ministry of industry and infrastructure which oversees the nation's total energy, mineral production, and transportation infrastructure. It's highly centralized focus puts a considerable degree of direction in the hands and minds of Beijing through minister Mang Xhu.
Energy and Mineral production
A large part of the Chinese state is considered under-powered still and the nation does not yet have a fully functional energy grid. Much of the energy service being concentrated on the Chinese coast and on provincial capitals. What it does have is powered largely through coal-fired power plants. The coal being mined from northern and central China.
Ministry surveys of Western China suggests there are large supplies of oil and gas supplies underneath Xianjiang.
Other facets of China's mining include the retrieval of its iron, tin antimony, magnesium, salt, vanadium, and molybdenum ore which ministry officials feel they can produce at rates of several hundred million tonnes a year. However, this area of the economy is still under industrialized and lacking. Though considered inefficient the ministry still has not yet seen incentive to expand the industry in part because of over-all low demand, going far enough to meet state quotas and Comintern requests.
China also has large deposits of gold, silver, tin and other metals.
State owned factories accommodate for the consumer and internal industrial demands of China and abroad, reaching into a large array of diverse fields. The production center has always in some facet remained in some balance with the agriculture sector, which has often been blamed for stunting the current industrial growth of the nation, as well as overall low international demand from China's low interest in international trade. By and large, priority for industry has gone to the military, and then to the eastern urban populations of China before working outwards.
The production of automobiles was resumed in the 1970's.
The largest network linking China is the vast railroad network crisscrossing the nation. A left-behind from the turn of the century, the old rail systems largely connected the major urban centers with only a handful of main routes reaching out as far as the far west. In the years after the end of the Revolution the network has since expanded to accommodate and encourage additional growth.
The rail networks have slowed with the development of the fledgling highway project, which seeks to be an alternative to the rails. Since the reintroduction of automobiles and reworking the ailing road systems was considered a preemptive call to prepare ahead of time for the predicted market, which has been growing. The necessity of the highways was further highlighted during the Russian VX crisis when the roads were re-imagined as being easy disaster response networks for evacuations and deployment of military engineers to contain the situation.
Tourism in China is most often focused inwardly. Although it having opened its doors to members of the ASB and then the International has seen a growing foreign interest in China as a tourism destination. Although its tourism industry is heavily geared away from "bourgeoisie" definitions of tourism destinations.
Major destinations in touring China often involve visiting its centuries worth of historical sites and its native, natural environment. Focuses such as gambling as was prominent in Macau have been closed; although a energetic underground gambling culture exists all throughout China.